Tag Archives: science

Cytoplasmic Male Sterility

One of the most striking examples of cytoplasmic heredity can be regarded as cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) which has been found in many plants – corn, onions, beets, flax. Consider the example of cms maize. Corn – a monoecious plant, the female flowers which are collected in the ear, and male – in a whisk. Sometimes in panicle can be immature anthers with sterile pylosobennostyami cytoplasm. Pollination with pollen from cms, taken from other plants in the progeny gives shape and with sterile pollen.

Consequently, the sign of male sterility is transmitted through the maternal line. Even when all 10 pairs of chromosomes in pollen sterile plants are replaced chromosomes of plants with normal pollen, male sterility is preserved. Cytoplasm, conditional male sterility, can be denoted by vdet and cytoplasm of normal across the beat. Genetic analysis showed that genotype of the plant also affects the sterility of pollen. Cytoplasm tsit5 causes sterility only when the genotype of recessive genes in homozygous state rfrf – tsit5 rfrf. When tsit3 RfRf or tsit5 Rfrf plants have normal pollen fertility. Hence, the Rf gene is able to restore pollen fertility.

Such relations between the cytoplasm and genotype allowed us to develop methodology and to chart the receipt of interlinear hybrids of maize using the cms lines of maize used belong to the so-called "fixer" sterility "reducers" fertility. Fertile lines and varieties, preserving when crossed with a sterile form sterility in the offspring are called "fixer" for sterility, and the lines and varieties, reducing the fertility of offspring plants with cms – "reducing" fertility. (Similarly see: Downtown Philadelphia Condos). I know two types of maize male sterility. Study of Education pollen sterile forms of maize showed that the apparent violation of sporogenesis occur at various stages: some degeneration is completed at the stage of single-core pollen, others – binuclear. Great influence on the manifestation of sterility by external conditions: temperature, humidity, soil and air, as well as the duration of the day. Maize varieties with one or another type of cms have different sensitivities to environmental factors. In plants with Moldovan type cms panicle form anthers, which were not disclosed, the pollen in them unviable, although under certain conditions, can be formed and sustained. In plants with Texas style cms manifestation of sterility, to a lesser extent influenced by external factors, but a sign is expressed much: anthers strongly degenerated and never disclosed. In the selection of both types cms. In addition, there are data about the use of cms and wheat. Received sterile form by crossing two plant species – Aegilops and wheat, are working on the selection of other components for hybridisation, provide the maximum heterosis. Failed to reveal a pair of crosses, which give additional yield by 40-50%.

Nexans Germany

The year’s 45th national competition is the Foundation “youth research” out e.V. together with ThyssenKrupp AG from 13 to 15 May 2009 in Essen. We are committed to youth research, because we want to help the youth to realize their own future with its technical possibilities. Together with the youth of today, we develop the future it – our children – are living in the”Dr. Francis Krahenbuhl, Chief Executive Officer of Nexans Germany GmbH.

our support of the youth research dash is just one example, the early contact with schools and universities is as important to us. Finally we want to present as early as possible ourselves as an attractive employer our future employees”, adds Jutta van, spokeswoman Nexans Germany. That education is not a product, but rather an ongoing process, proves also the cable expert his national and international continuing education programs such as leadership development and the Nexans University”. Photo caption: The youth discovered new worlds the official poster of youth research 2010. About 5,000 research projects in the areas of workplace, biology, chemistry, Earth and space sciences, mathematics/computer science, physics and technology are for the competition Jugend forscht 2010 has been filed. Nexans Germany of Nexans Germany is one of the leading cable manufacturers in Europe.

The company offers a comprehensive range of high-performance cables, systems and components for the telecommunications and energy sectors. The programme is rounded off by superconducting materials and components, Cryoflex transfer systems and special machines for the cable industry. It is made in Germany and abroad with approx. 6.240 employees. The turnover is approx. EUR 936 million in 2008. Through the tight integration of the Nexans group Nexans Germany has excellent opportunities for the synergies in all areas of the group. The same is true for global projects as well as for research and development, exchange of know-how, etc.

IBM Research Density

Such technologies are necessary to keep pace with the explosion of digital information”, says Evangelos Eleftheriou, IBM Fellow and Director of storage technology research at IBM Research Zurich. IBM is in a unique position to assist customers in the backup, storage, and analysis of rapidly growing volumes of data and to help them to improve their efficiency and profitability.” Because: long-term storage has become an absolute must for users at relatively low cost. Data are often in automated tape libraries tape recorded, in which a or some a few tape drives manage dozens to thousands of tapes. Tape libraries can now petabytes of data include representing millions of gigabytes. An examination of the cost per gigabyte shows that the costs for the long term storage of data on tape-based systems, Depending on their size, currently are one-fifth to one-tenth of today’s disk storage systems. In addition, tape cartridges cause no power consumption, as long as not they accessed, in contrast to the continuously rotating disks. This offers further potential for cost savings and make the most energy efficient off-the-shelf storage technology tape systems. The current density demonstration is based on several important technical improvements.

25 times more data tracks on the unchanged 0.5 inch wide band could be accommodated through a precise positioning of the read and write heads. A great progress was also made in the detection ability of the individual bits, which allowed a 50 percent increase of the linear density. Another crucial factor was the use of a new, low-friction read and stylus. Almaden, this was developed research at IBM, based on close cooperation with FUJIFILM in the development of new storage media. IBM has had a long Tradition of innovation in tape storage technology. The first commercial IBM tape storage product, the IBM 726 magnetic tape unit was announced about 60 years ago. It also used band roles with a range of about a half an inch, reaching a capacity of approximately 2 megabytes.

Today announced band storage density would correspond to the 17.5 millions capacity of this first band role. (1) the record density was achieved at a typical speed of 2 meters per second, and the obtained error rates are correctable with standard error correction method and meet IBM’s specifications for LTO 4 products. (2) at this calculation, a 12-percent increase in the length of the band adopted the reduced Strip thickness from the results. 3) rounded up from 43.75 further information please refer to the English-speaking media release: news /… You can download high-resolution images online: photos/ibm. More information about IBM Research – Zurich Learn more about FUJIFILM video “IBM research sets new record in magnetic tape data density” IBM Austria

What Is The Rubber?

Rubber as a universal material rubber is a heavily destructible and elastic very resistant fabric. The main ingredient is rubber. This substance is extracted from the Kautschikbaum and was the best for the production of rubber. Rubber is versatile and nowadays hardly to think away from everyday life. Rubber rings are used, for example, as seals for valves o.a.

and one can find it everywhere. The rubber is processed using much pressure and heat to rubber. The result is a long rubber band which is then cut into pieces. A large part of the produced rubber ends up ultimately in Tyre production. Be there to handle different types of rubber and the different rubber bands are then pressed together to the tread of the tyre. Unfortunately, rubber is not unlimited can be, because rubber rings or erasers after some time become brittle and may break eventually. If the rubber is too old, it is no longer elastic and thus loses the characteristics of the material.

Rubber will soften under the influence of heat and finally liquid. In this manner, for example round shapes can be cast. Rubber is very resilient and flexible, but when a parent suspects the substance can tear or burst like the balloon. If the material is stretched such as during a long rubber band in the gym, it shrinks back after relieving on the output size. Rubber is a substance which is no longer indispensable in our industry. There are sealing our window or car tires, everywhere we find this material in the various versions. You could continue the uses for rubber in an endlessly long list here.

Aeronautics Inventors

While in the field of air cargo around the world is completely dominated by airplane aviation, airships are not exhausted its potential. Used in construction of modern Dirigibles technologies, as well as a clear idea of strengths of these aircraft makes them promising to perform many types of traffic. Balloon and airship since the construction of the balloon brothers Montgolfier in Europe and America found many ways to use balloons for almost more useful purposes than providing exciting ballooning rides. Balloon-balloon may be more or less successfully maneuvered vertically only by changing the aerostatic lift. But in the horizontal plane of the free balloon can only drift with the wind. Now, as more than two hundred years ago, balloon remains predominantly exercise equipment and a tool for research. Another thing – run balloon or airship.

From the outset, the history of aeronautics inventors have tried to rid Balloons of unconditional dependence on non-permanent flow. But this was only after the establishment of internal combustion engines. The first third of the twentieth century was a time of intensive progress of aviation and airship. Swansong steel Zeppelin. These aircraft are already able to handle regular passenger line of great length, including the transatlantic. But some of the largest airship disasters have led to what the late thirties of the twentieth century for several decades with Dirigibles no longer bind any prospects. The more so by the time the success of aircraft heavier than air – airplanes and helicopters later – completely overshadowed from public scrutiny.