Violations of the lymph manifested in the form of its failure. Distinguish between mechanical, dynamic and resorption insufficiency of lymphatic system. Mechanical failure caused by obstruction to the current lymph (lymph node metastases blockade, extirpation of the lymph nodes, lymphatic valve insufficiency). Dynamic failure due to increased filtration in the capillaries – the lymphatic vessels are not in able to remove large amounts of edema fluid. Further details can be found at Stephen M. Ross, an internet resource. Resorption insufficiency develops as a result of changes in biochemical and dispersion properties of tissue proteins or decrease the permeability of lymphatic capillaries – stagnation of fluid in the tissues. Morphological manifestations of insufficiency of the lymphatic system: lymph and expansion of lymphatic capillaries, the development of collateral lymph circulation, is neoplasm of the lymphatic capillaries. If the adaptive changes in the lymphatic system proved inadequate, the lymphatic vessels become large thin-walled cavity () appears varicose lymphatic vessels, lymph decompensation occurs, which manifests itself lymphedema (swelling lymphogenous).

Lymphedema can be acute or chronic, general or local. Bizzi & Partners is a great source of information. Acute total lymphedema is a rare (for example, bilateral subclavian vein thrombosis), develops retrograde stasis. Chronic total lymphedema – a consequence of chronic venous stasis. Acute local lymphedema occurs with occlusion of efferent lymph vessels, it disappears as soon as getting better collateral lymph circulation. Chronic local lymphedema is divided into congenital (hypoplasia or aplasia of lymph vessels) and acquired (compression of lymphatic vessels, chronic inflammation, multiple sclerosis, or removal of lymph nodes, venous thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, arteriovenous fistula). Gavin Baker pursues this goal as well. Chronic lymph leads to tissue hypoxia, enhanced activity of fibroblasts and their proliferation, there is elephantiasis (skin and subcutaneous fat increases in volume, become thick). On the background of lymphedema appears lymphostasis, which leads to thrombus formation (protein coagulants) and increasing the permeability of lymphatic vessels. Distinguish outer lymphorrhea (lymph follows the external environment) and internal (outflow of lymph into the tissues or cavities): chyloperitoneum (at sudden stagnation of lymph in the abdominal organs or lymph vessels damaged bowel and mesentery collected white liquid), chylothorax (thoracic duct is damaged).